Tuesday, August 1, 2017

Bill Windsor Anti-Corruption Warrior of Lawless America Files Appeal and Continues Seeking Justice in the State of Montana. Where are the State and Federal Authorities ?

Supreme Court No. DA 16-0138 STATE OF MONTANA,

Plaintiff and Appellee,

Defendant and Appellant.


On Appeal from the Montana Fourth Judicial District Court,
Missoula County, the Hon. James A. Haynes, Presiding

Smith & Stephens, P.C. Montana Attorney General

Attorney for Defendant KIRSTEN PABST
& Appellant Missoula County Attorney
200 W. Broadway
Missoula, MT 59802
Attorneys for Plaintiff
& Appellee

District Court Judge for the Twenty-First Judicial District, sitting by designation.
Case Number: DA 16-0138


William M. Windsor (Windsor) appeals from his convictions of two
counts of Violation of an Order of Protection (both misdemeanors) and
the sentences imposed thereon. (Appendix A).


The district court erred in denying Windsor’s “result” definitions
of “knowingly” and “purposely.”

The State violated Windsor’s due process rights in withholding
information pursuant to Brady v. Maryland, 373 U.S. 83 (1963).
The district court committed plain error in allowing the
prosecutor to question Windsor on whether he had been previously
charged with felonies, and whether Windsor had offered to settle the
case prior to trial, both of which amount to prosecutorial misconduct.


Through a very strange series of events, Windsor – then living in
Georgia – and Sean Boushie (Boushie), an employee at the University
of Montana, began to engage in a war of words over the internet. The
war culminated in Windsor traveling to Montana to obtain a temporary
order of protection against Boushie for cyber-stalking,

Boushie obtaining a Temporary Order of Protection (TOP) against Windsor, and
Windsor eventually being charged with felonies for violating the TOP.
Three of the five charges were eventually dismissed by the district
court on the grounds that some of the critical terms of the TOP
contained “vague and unintelligible prohibition[s]

11). The remaining two counts were misdemeanors. Windsor’s case
proceeded to trial, and he was ultimately convicted by a jury and
sentenced to two consecutive six-month sentences, all of which was
suspended except for 134 days which Windsor had already served.
(Doc. 201 at 2). The district court, which retained control of the case
despite the reduction of the offenses from felonies to misdemeanors,
also imposed a number of conditions and financial obligations which
will be addressed in further detail.

This is not Windsor’s first trip to this Court. He has filed several
pro se appeals related to the denial of his own request for restraining
2Windsor’s request was denied by the Missoula Municipal Court
on Aug. 6, 2016.

orders and orders of protection against Boushie. See: Windsor v. Fourth
Judicial Dist., 2014 MT 52N, 374 Mont. 542, 2013 Mont. LEXIS 575
(OP 13-0697); Windsor v. Boushie, 2014 MT 53N, 374 Mont. 542;
Windsor v. Missoula Muni. Court, 375 Mont. 551, 346 P.3d 1132 (OP
14-0173). In each of these cases, this Court denied relief to Windsor.
Boushie was more successful. In Boushie v. Windsor, 2014 MT
153, 375 Mont. 301, 328 P.3d 631 (hereafter Boushie I), this Court
upheld the TOP Boushie obtained against Windsor. Because this TOP
ultimately became the foundation for the criminal conviction from
which this appeal is taken, the procedural history of the TOP is

Windsor sought four separate petitions for protective orders and
filed six police reports; all of which were directed at Boushie. Boushie,
¶ 4. After these Herculean efforts, Windsor took other steps he deemed
necessary to protect himself and his reputation against Boushie. In
turn, Boushie requested and was granted a TOP against Windsor in the
Missoula Municipal Court. Id.

This TOP, was eventually described by the district court as
having “vague and unintelligible prohibition[s],” (Doc. 150 at 8-9, 11),
barred Windsor from threatening to harm or harming
Boushie’s wife; harassing or otherwise contacting Boushie’s
wife or University of Montana Staff4; coming within 1,500
feet from Boushie’s residence, Boushie’s wife and the
University of Montana; and possessing a certain firearm. It
also required Windsor to release SeanBoushie.com to
Boushie and to refrain from posting Boushie’s name on line.
Id. at ¶ 5. On September 17, 2013, “Boushie filed a request to affirm
and extend the order of protection in the District Court.” Boushie at ¶
6. For his part, Windsor “moved to vacate the TOP. He also moved for
discovery regarding a number of different things, including Boushie’s
mental health and online activities.” Id. These pleadings were also
filed in district court.

The district court “denied Windsor’s requests and, ultimately
affirmed the Municipal Court’s decision regarding the TOP.” Id at ¶7.
The district court also declared Windsor a “vexatious litigant.” Id at ¶
20. Finally, the district court then took the unusual and punitive step
4According to 2009 research, the University of Montana is by far
the top employer in the City of Missoula, employing approximately
3,651 employees.

b1d0-ea06-11de-b150-001cc4c002e0.html (last accessed 7/24/2017).
of issuing an injunction because of Windsor’s alleged
‘extraordinary abuse of the state judicial system by
repeatedly filing frivolous, malicious and vexatious lawsuits
. . . .’ Accordingly, the [district] court enjoined Windsor from
filing any complaint or initiating any proceedings without
leave from the district court judge. The [district] court’s
order also provided that if the lawsuit or proceeding named
judges or court employees, Windsor had to tender a $50,000
bond sufficient to satisfy an award of sanctions.

Id. at ¶ 7. This Court correctly struck the district court’s condition that
Windsor post a bond. Id. at 21. However, this Court did uphold the
district court’s decision which upheld Boushie’s TOP against Windsor.
Upon remand, the case remained briefly in the municipal court before
Boushie removed the case to the district court. (Doc. 150 at 3).
On September 23, 2014, the district court set an evidentiary
hearing for December 8, 2014. The order contained no statement about
the August 23, 2013 TOP remaining in effect until the December
hearing. Additionally, the December evidentiary hearing never
occurred. In fact, no evidentiary hearing ever occurred. (Doc. 150 at 4).
The district court eventually dismissed the TOP on motion of Boushie.
On October 3, 2014, the state filed an Information charging
Windsor with five counts of violation of an order of protection. Because
these offenses stack, i.e., subsequent convictions result in increased
punishments; the final three counts were charged as felonies. (Doc. 3).
The Information alleged Windsor violated the TOP on or about the
following dates: May 4, 2014 (Count I); July 4, 2014 (Count II); October
2, 2014 (Count III)5; December 30, 2013 (Count IV); and February 6,
2014 (Count V). (Doc. 3).

The factual predicates of the allegations largely stemmed from
some of the absurd restrictions in the TOP. Count I alleged that
Windsor had “posted an article on his website,

www.lawlessamerica.com, authored by himself, which mention the
name ‘Sean Boushie’ three times.” (Doc. 151 at 2). Similarly, Count II
alleged that Windsor had posted an article on the same website that
mentioned Boushie’s name once. (Id). Count III alleged that Windsor
had not relinquished control of the website www.seanboushie.com.
Count IV alleged that Windsor violated the TOP by posting “Sean
Boushie’s name on Twitter. . . .” (Doc. 151 at 3). Finally, the Amended
5The state later amended the date on Count III from a single date
to a time spanning August 24, 2013 through October 2, 2014. (Doc.

Information alleged that Windsor had “emailed Claudia Denker-Eccles,
Associate Counsel for the University of Montana.” (Doc. 151 at 3).
Acting pro se6, Windsor filed a flurry of motions including motions
challenging the validity of the TOP and motions to dismiss the charges
against him. On October 29, 2015 the district court issued an order
dismissing Counts I and II (writing Boushie’s name on a website), and
Count IV (writing Boushie’s name on Twitter).

Windsor’s trial on the remaining two counts commenced on
January 5, 2016. As with the majority of the pre-trial proceedings,
Windsor represented himself during trial. (Doc. 185). The State was
represented by deputy county attorney Jennifer Clark. With Mrs.
Clark was Det. Chris Shermer, a member of the Missoula Police
Department. (Jan. 5, 2016, Tr. at 95)7 Det. Shermer was the lead
6Windsor was originally appointed a public defender, Christopher
Daly. Mr. Daly’s role eventually transitioned into that of stand-by
counsel. Finally, with Windsor’s and the district court’s permission,
Mr. Daly withdrew and Windsor proceeded pro se.
7The transcripts in this matter appear to be grouped and
paginated as a collection of hearings. For example, hearings from April
8, 2015, September 11, 2015, January 5, 2016, and January 6, 2016, are
grouped and paginated as one transcript. Hence, the pagination does
not match the page number for a specific date.

investigator in the case against Windsor. Det. Shermer was listed as a
witness for the State. (Doc. 114 at 2). Windsor also listed Det.
Shermer as a defense witness. (Doc. 169.2 at pg. 1). Unbeknownst to
Windsor, Det. Shermer had been disciplined in October 2010 by the
Missoula Police Department, for “failing to educate himself of the
relevant criminal statutes and by using illegal means of pursuing a
criminal offender.” (Appendix E). Det. Shermer did not testify at
Windsor’s trial but his presence was known to the jury, (Jan. 5, 2016,
Tr. at 95, 130), and he was represented as the lead agent in the case
against Windsor. Det. Shermer also interviewed Boushie in the course
of his investigation. (Jan. 5, 2016, Tr. at 216). Det. Shermer was also
subpoenaed by both the State, (Doc. 169), and his name appears on
Windsor’s witness list (169.2).

Windsor testified on his own behalf at trial. However, because he
was acting pro se and without the benefit of stand-by counsel, he
questioned himself on the witness stand in a question-and-answer
format. While this process seemed to work on direct, it allowed the
prosecution to run roughshod over Windsor’s rights on cross-
examination because his ability to make contemporaneous objections
was compromised. For example, on cross-examination the following
prejudicial colloquy occurred between State’s counsel and Windsor:
State: One of your contentions is that this court is corrupt,

Windsor: Yes.

State: But, in fact, this court actually dismissed three of the
charged counts.

Windsor: Yes. Three felonies.

(Jan. 6, 2016, Vol. I. at 22). A short time later, the prosecutor violated
Mont. R. Evid. 410 by questioning and eliciting testimony from Windsor
on his pre-trial attempts to settle the case. Although Windsor did not
object, the district court did not intervene to prevent an obvious error of
law on the part of the prosecutor. Further, when Windsor attempted to
address these settlement discussions in his closing argument, he was
prohibited from doing so upon objection by the State, despite the fact
that the State had elicited the testimony on cross-examination. (Jan. 6,
2016, Vol. I. at 67).

One of the pillars of Windsor’s defense was that he and Boushie
were also engaged in civil litigation and, as a result, Windsor was
required to serve certain legal documents on Boushie. Boushie’s TOP,
however, prevented Windsor from serving Boushie as required by the
Rules of Civil Procedure. One of Windsor’s arguments was that he had
mailed documents intended for Boushie to an attorney for the
University of Montana, Boushie’s employer. In his opening statement,
Windsor argued:

Some mail was sent to attorney Caudia Denker-Eccles.
At the time my thought was that the ex parte TOP had been
expired for months. I also thought that the ex parte TOP
would not and could not apply to something as vital as the
service of legal documents.

When you’re involved in a civil lawsuit with somebody,
you are required to send them a copy of everything that gets
filed with the court. If you change your address, you have to
– have to serve something. It has to be sent to them
otherwise your case can be dismissed because you didn’t do
it. It’s a – it’s a law. It’s a rule.

So how can somebody be stopped from their civil
litigation with a temporary order of protection issued on an
ex parte basis where I had no notice of it and didn’t even
have an opportunity to speak? I don’t believe you can.
I was confident that I was not violating the ex parte
TOP. I would have never sent anything if I thought it was a
violation.  (Jan. 5, 2016, Tr. 152-53).

Windsor’s proposed jury instructions also resounded with this
very theory of defense: he thought the TOP had expired and even if it
had not, he did not violate it by sending the paperwork to an attorney
working for Boushie’s employer. For example, Windsor’s proposed
instruction 13 reads, in part, “[w]hat a defendant was thinking and
what the defendant intended when the crime was committed matters.

The jury must differentiate between someone who did not mean to
commit a crime and someone who intentionally set out to commit a
crime.” (Appendix D at 28)8. Windsor also objected to what ultimately
became Instruction 15 allowing the jury to infer Windsor’s state of
mind from his actions and other facts. Windsor’s objection was “Better
definitions are provided for both knowingly and purposely.” (Appendix
D at 36). As better definitions, Windsor proposed result-based
definitions of both “knowingly” and “purposely.” (Appendix D at 37-56).
He even provided the district court with applicable legal authority
8Windsor’s proposed jury instructions incorporate lengthy legal
argument. For the Court’s convenience, Appendix D has been
paginated by counsel.

including citations to this Court’s decision in State v. Lambert, 280
Mont. 231, 929 P.2d 846 (1996). The district court denied Windsor’s
instructions and, instead, gave the conduct-based definitions of both
“purposely” and “knowingly.” (Doc 189).

In the end, the jury found Windsor guilty of both counts. (Jan. 6,
2016, Vol. I at 81). The district court sentenced Windsor to two sixmonth
sentences in the Missoula County jail; each sentence to run
consecutively to each other. The district court also imposed $2,000.00
in restitution to Boushie, a $1,000 fine, various fees, and prohibited
Windsor from having any contact with Boushie and his wife. As part of
this restriction, the district court ordered Windsor to take down “any
web site that you have that has Sean Boushie’s name on it. . . .” (Jan.
6, 2016, Vol. I at 96). This prohibition included Windsor from referring
to Boushie on any website. (Jan. 6, 2016, Vol. I at 99).

At the conclusion of the sentencing hearing, the district court
then requested Windsor autograph a copy of Windsor’s “Wanted”
poster. Windsor replied that he “would be delighted.” (Jan. 6, 2016,
Vol. I at 100).


The offense of violating an order of protection requires a singular
result. In this case, the required definitions of “purposely” and
“knowingly” required the state to prove beyond a reasonable doubt that
Windsor acted with either a conscious object to cause a violation of an
order of protection, or with an awareness that there was a high
probability that his conduct would cause a violation of an order of

Although Det. Shermer did not testify at trial, his presence and
the fruits of his investigation were material to the State’s case. The
evidence that he had been disciplined by his employer and had engaged
in potentially criminal activity was equally material to Windsor’s
defense. Given how Windsor conducted his trial, it is all-but certain
that, had the State disclosed this Brady/Giglio material, Windsor would
have called Det. Shermer to testify for the purpose of discrediting the
investigation and the State’s case.9 The material set forth in Appendix
G would have had a devastating effect on the State’s case, undermined
9Giglio v. United States, 405 U.S. 150 (1971).

the integrity of the investigation into Windsor, and reasonably would
have resulted in a different outcome at trial, especially in light of
Windsor’s repeated references to the corruption represented by his

The district court also erred in allowing the prosecutor to elicit
testimony from Windsor that he had been charged with felonies and
that he had entered into settlement discussions with the State.
Although Windsor was a pro se defendant and required to know the
rules of law and evidence, the district court has a corresponding
obligation to ensure the laws are followed and prosecutor does not take
advantage of the defendant’s ignorance.


This Court reviews jury instructions for abuse of discretion. State
v. Lacey, 2012 MT 52, ¶ 15, 364 Mont. 291, 272 P.3d 1288. “In
considering whether a district court has correctly instructed the jury in
a criminal case, we determine whether the instructions taken as a
whole fully and fairly instructed the jury on law applicable to the case.”
State v. Tellegen, 2013 MT 337, ¶ 5, 372 Mont. 454, 314 P.3d 902 (citing

State v. Hocter, 2011 MT 251, ¶ 14, 362 Mont. 215, 262 P.3d 1089).
Where, as in Windsor’s case, a defendant asserts the district court
misinterpreted the meaning and application of the mental state of the
offense, this Court reviews the district court’s interpretation or
application of the law to determine if such interpretation or application
was correct. State v. Lambert, 280 Mont. 231, 234, 929 P.2d 836, 848

“Alleged Brady violations are reviewed de novo.” United States v.
Brady, 67 F.3d 1421, 1428 (9th Cir. 1995). Typically, a district court’s
ruling on a motion for a mistrial is reviewed to determine whether the
district court abused its discretion. State v. Partin, 287 Mont. 12, 18,
951 P.2d 1002 (1996).

“In general, this Court does not address issues of prosecutorial
misconduct pertaining to a prosecutor’s statements not objected to at
trial. However, we may exercise our discretion and review such issues
under the plain error doctrine.” State v. Lawrence, 2016 MT 346, ¶ 6,
386 Mont. 86, 385 P.3d 968. (internal citations and quotations omitted).
“Once the doctrine is invoked, this Court’s review is grounded on our
‘inherent duty to interpret the constitution and to protect individual
rights set forth in the constitution.’” Id (quoting and citing State v.
Finley, 278 Mont. 126, 134, 915 P.2d 208, 213)).


I. Conduct versus Result Mental State Instructions
“It is a basic rule that the trial court’s instructions must cover
every issue or theory having support in the evidence.” State v. Thorton,
218 Mont. 317, 320, 708 P.2d 273, 276 (1985). Additionally, it is a trial
court’s independent duty to ensure the jury instructions in a criminal
case fully and fairly instruct the jury on the law applicable to the case.
C. Wright, Federal Practice and Procedure, § 485, p. 375 (3d ed.2000)
(“It is the duty of the trial judge to charge the jury on all essential
questions of law, whether requested or not”). “[T]he essence of a fair
trial is ensuring that the jury is provided the correct legal principles so
that it may reach the proper conclusion based on the law and the
evidence.” People v. Novak, 643 N.E.2d 762, 774 (Ill. 1994). “Jury
instructions serve an important role in trial. They guarantee decisions
consistent with the evidence and the law. . . .” State v. Andress, 2013
MT 12A, ¶ 14, 368 Mont. 248, 299 P.3d 316.

Here, although Windsor’s proposed instructions are neither a
model of brevity nor fashioned in a manner normally seen by trial
courts, they do adequately set forth the correct result-based definitions
for “knowingly” and “purposely.” This Court has instructed that
“[d]istrict courts should ‘grant wider latitude to pro se litigants’ as long
as that latitude does not prejudice the other party.” State v. Daniels,
2017 MT 163, ¶ 17, ___ Mont. ___, ___ P.3d ___ (quoting and citing
State v. Ferre, 2014 MT 96, ¶ 16, 374 Mont. 428, 322 P.3d 1047). Thus,
Windsor should not be expected to craft his instructions “with the
discrimination of an Oxford don,” Davis v. United States, 512 U.S. 452,
459 (1994) (internal citations and quotations omitted), providing that
both the State and the district court can determine the substance of the
proposed instruction.

In Windsor’s case, it was clear from well before trial that a main
portion of his defense was that he was faced with Hobson’s choice:
being required to serve Boushie with legal paperwork in other civil
litigation and a TOP with a scope that completely prohibited Windsor’s
ability to perform that service. Distilled, Windsor’s defense is that he
did not intend to violate the TOP because he had taken steps not to
serve Boushie directly, but legal counsel for Boushie’s employer. In
other words, Windsor took careful, reasoned steps to ensure that his
conduct did not cause the result of violating the TOP. Again, his
proposed instructions reflect both that reality and that theory of

Windsor voir dired jurors on the subject. He asked the venire “If I
tell you, as I will tell you, that I never intended to commit a crime,
would that cause you to doubt that I’m telling the truth? And we’ll
start with you [indicating to a member of the venire].” (Tr. at 120).
The potential juror answer, “Well, intent is a - - is a - - I don’t know
what you intend. I just know the resulting action. I wouldn’t know
what the intention is without some sort of story, and then I wouldn’t be
sure.” (Id). Windsor even tried to introduce exhibits which showed his
attempts to avoid sending anything to Boushie. “What [defendant’s
proposed exhibit 14) has to do with, all of those have to do with showing
mental state and the attempts to avoid sending anything directly to the
petition in this case who was - - Sean was a protected person.” (Tr. at
72). In his opening statement, Windsor argued, “There is a
requirement that you have to knowingly and purposefully do
something, and based on my reading of the case law relative to that it
means you have to have a guilty mind. You have to have an intent.
You have to have an intent that you are going to commit a crime.” (Tr
at 161). While not necessarily the correct legal language, Windsor is
advocating for a result-based theory of defense and relying on the
correct mental state instructions.

This Court is aware of the varying legal definitions of both
“purposely” and “knowingly” that appear in the pattern Montana
Criminal Jury Instructions and the accompanying caution that appears
in the comment section. Both the caution and this Court’s
jurisprudence make it very clear that it is error to give a jury all
possible definitions of “knowingly” and “purposely.” It is also error to
give the incorrect definitions. State v. Rothacher, 272 Mont. 303, 901
P.2d 82 (1995); State v. Lambert, 280 Mont. 231, 929 P.2d 846 (1996);
State v. Patton, 280 Mont. 278, 930 P.2d 635 (1996); State v. Johnston,
2010 MT 152, ¶ 9, 357 Mont. 46, 237 P.3d 70 (citing and quoting State
v. Azure, 2005 MT 328, ¶ 20, 329 Mont. 536, 125 P.3d 116).
Although the district court had previously described the TOP at
issue in this case as containing “vague and unintelligible prohibiton[s]”
(Doc. 150 at 8-9), the court instructed the jury that Windsor would have
the requisite mental state to violate the TOP if it was Windsor’s
“conscious object to engage in conduct of that nature.” (Doc. 189, Inst.

17). The court also instructed the jury that it could find Windsor acted
“knowingly” if the jury found Windsor was “aware of his conduct.”
(Doc. 189, Inst. 18). Both instructions undercut the state’s burden of
proof and are inconsistent with the requirements of the relevant
criminal statute. They were also inconsistent with Windsor’s theory of

Violating an order of protection is a result-based offense and
requires the result-based mental state. “A person commits the offense
of violation of an order of protection if the person, with knowledge of
the order, purposely or knowingly violates a provision of . . . an order of
(emphasis added). Time and time again, this Court has issued opinions
holding that when a criminal offense requires that a defendant act
“purposely” or “knowingly,” the district court is required to instruct the
jury on the definition of purposely and the definition of knowingly that
applies in the context of the particular crime.” Patton, 280 Mont. at
291, 930 P.2d at 643.

Where an offense criminalizes particularized conduct, the
court must instruct the jury with the “conduct-based”
definition, i.e., a person acts purposely when it is his conscious object to
engage in that conduct, and he acts knowingly when he is aware of his
conduct. See Lambert, 280 Mont. at 236, 929 P.2d at 849. Where,
however, an offense does not describe particularized conduct but
instead the result of conduct, then the court must instruct the jury with
the “result-based” definition, i.e., a person acts purposely when it is his
conscious object to cause that result, and he acts knowingly when he is
aware that it is highly probable that the specified result will be caused
by his conduct. Id.

The statute prohibiting violation of an order of protection does not
set forth particular conduct which, if engaged in, results in the
commission of the offense; rather, one “may engage in a wide variety of
conduct and still commit the offense.” Id. Mont. Code Ann. § 45-5-626
seeks to avoid the singular result of the violation of a protective order,
not the many forms of conduct that result in the violation. In light of
this statutory scheme, the district court erred in giving the “conductbased”
instructions. The effect of these instructions “was to alter the
State’s burden of proving beyond a reasonable doubt the elements of
the offense.” Lambert, 280 Mont. at 237, 929 P.2d at 850. As this
Court has noted, “to prove that a defendant was aware of his conduct is
one thing; to prove that he was aware of the high probability of the
risks posed by his conduct is quite another.” Id.

As instructed in Windsor’s case, the state did not have to prove,
and the jury did not have to find, beyond a reasonable doubt, that
Windsor intended to cause the result of violating the TOP, or that he
was aware of a high probability that his conduct would cause that
result. All the state had to prove and the jury had to find was that
Windsor was aware of his conduct, e.g., contacting an attorney for the
University of Montana. This is a much lower burden than proving he
intended to violate the TOP with that conduct.

In his own legally untrained way, Windsor presented the above
argument to the district court. Windsor primarily relied on State v.
Starr, 204 Mont. 210, 664 P.2d 893 (1983) to advocate for the result based
definitions of “purposely” and “knowingly.” While Starr is not as
on-point as cases like Johnston, Lambert, or Patton, it does address the
two necessary functions of a district court in selecting the appropriate
mens rea jury instructions. “Thus, two functions are performed in
analyzing the statute which describes an offense. First, determining
which mental state must be proved, and second, determining to which
of the four conditions or occurrences the mental states relate.” Starr,
204 Mont. at 221, 664 P.2d at 898. The four conditions referenced in
Starr are co-opted from a law review article upon which the Starr court

The Montana code uses only three classifications in
evaluating the defendant’s mental state: purposely,
knowingly, and negligently. These mental state
classifications are defined in relation to four objectively
measurable conditions or occurrences: conduct,
circumstances, facts, and result. However, all four criteria
do not apply to each mental state. ‘Purposely,’ which means
with a conscious objective, relates to conduct or result.

‘Knowingly,’ defined as ‘awareness,’ relates to conduct,
circumstances, facts or result.
Starr, 204 Mont. at 219, 664 P.2d at 898 (citing and quoting, J.
Essman, A Primer on Mental State in the Montana Criminal Code of
1973, 37 Mont. L. Rev. 401, 403-04 (1976)).

With Starr as authority, Windsor offered an instruction that
“purposely refers to the defendant’s objective or intended result.”
(Appendix D at 37). As for his proposed “knowingly” instruction,
Windsor proposed the following language: “A person acted knowingly if
he knew what he did was a crime, or there was a high probability that
his conduct would cause a crime.” (Appendix D at 48). He also argued
for instructing language reading “[t]o find the Defendant guilty in this
case, the State has to prove the Defendant was aware that his conduct
would violate an order of protection or that there was a high probability
that his conduct would violate an order of protection.” (Id). Windsor
was clearly advocating for the legally correct result-based definitions.
In fact, Windsor cited to the district court this Court’s opinions in
Johnston and State v. Azure, 2005 MT 328, ¶ 20, 329 Mont. 536, 125
P.3d 1116.

There is a great deal of chaff in Windsor’s proposed jury
instructions. Contained within, however, are the kernels of the mental
state instructions which fully and fairly instruct the jury on the law
applicable to the case. The district court erred in not gleaning these
kernels and then giving the jury the correct mental state definitions of
“purposely” and “knowingly.” The district court had an obligation to
work a little harder to glean these kernels in Windsor’s instructions for
two reasons. First, because Windsor was pro se, the district court
should have extended Windsor wider latitude as long as it did not
prejudice the state. Second, Windsor actually presented the court with
the correct mental state instructions.

The district court abused its discretion in denying Windsor’s
instruction. When jury instructions were settled, the district court
started with the state’s jury instructions. While the state’s proposed
instructions are not found in the court record, the substance can be
ascertained from the discussion. When the court came to state’s
proposed mental state instructions 17 and 18, Windsor objected and
directed the court to his instructions in which he “provided a detailed
proposed instruction, along with extensive backup information, about
mens rea, actus rea. Purposely. When it’s the ‘person’s conscious object
to engage in conduct of that nature.’ If I’m a juror, it means nothing to
me.” (Tr. 298). The district court overruled Windsor’s objections
stating, “Well it’s the statutory definition, the language that’s in the
standard instructions, so it’s language that I’m aware the Montana
Supreme Court has approved.” (Id). Similarly, the court overruled
Windsor’s same objection to the State’s proposed definition of
“knowingly.” The court did, however, tell Windsor that it would look at
Windsor’s instruction after it had a chance to review them in greater
detail. (Tr. 302-03, 304).

After the Court had an opportunity to review Windsor’s proposed
instructions as well as the State’s objections to Windsor’s instructions,
the district court overruled all of Windsor’s objections by simply
“rely[ing] on the state’s notice of objections to defendant’s proposed jury
instructions, court document 172.” (Tr. 308). The state’s “Notice of
Objections to Defendant’s Proposed Jury Instructions” consisted of a
“spreadsheet of objections to Defendant’s proposed instructions.” (Doc.
172). Regarding Windsor’s proposed “purposely” instruction, the
State’s objection reads as follows: “D’s contains inaccurate statement of
law.” The spreadsheet contains the same objection to Windsor’s
“knowingly” instruction.

That is the sum total of the State’s objection.

The sum total of the district court’s exercise of discretion is reference to
the State’s objection in overruling Windsor’s instructions. “That a trial
court has a right to exercise its discretion does not mean a trial court
should not disclose the reasons underlying a discretionary act. Absent
these reasons, we as an appellate court, are left to guess as to why the
trial court made a particular decision.” State v. Stumpf, 187 Mont. 255,
226, 609 P.2d 298, 299 (1980). “[A] court’s failure to exercise its
discretion is, in itself, an abuse of discretion.” State v. Weaver, 276
Mont. 505, 509, 917 P.2d 437, 440 (1996).

Neither the State nor the district court elaborated on what
aspects of Windsor’s proposed “purposely” and “knowingly” instructions
each believed to be misstatements of law. Again, it is certainly true the
instructions contain extraneous material that may be legally incorrect.
However, the fact remains that Windsor’s proposed instructions at
their core presented the district court with the correct mental state
definitions. Nothing in the district courts rulings on either the State’s
proposed instructions or Windsor’s proposed instructions on the topic
evidence any consideration of whether Windsor’s crimes are conductbased
or result-based. Absent evidence of the exercise of this
discretion, or discussion as to why Windsor’s proposed instructions are
denied, this is an abuse of discretion by the district court.
Given the above, Windsor respectfully requests that this Court
conclude the district court erred in instructing the jury, vacate his
conviction, and remand the case to the appropriate court for a new

II. Due Process, Corruption, and Brady v. Maryland
The state violated Windsor’s due process rights in withholding
information pursuant to Brady v. Maryland, 373 U.S. 83 (1963).
Specifically, the state and its agency, the Missoula County Police
Department, withheld critical impeachment information on the lead
investigator in Windsor’s case, Det. Shermer. Although Det. Shermer
did not testify, he was listed on both parties’ witness lists, and his role
in Windsor’s case loomed large.

In Brady v. Maryland, 373 U.S. 83, 83 S. Ct. 1194, 10 L. Ed. 2d
215 (1963), the United States Supreme Court held “that the
suppression by the prosecution of evidence favorable to an accused
upon request violates due process where the evidence is material to
guilt or punishment. . . .” Brady, 373 U.S. at 87. Montana has adopted
the rationale of Brady. State v. Arlington, 265 Mont. 127, 151-152, 875
P.2d 307, 321-322 (1994). The United States Supreme Court has
broadened Brady to the point where a defendant’s failure to specifically
request does not alleviate the government or the State from its
obligation to disclose favorable evidence. United States v. Agurs, 427
U.S. 97, 49 L. Ed. 2d 342, 96 S. Ct. 2392 (1976).

In Montana, a party seeking to establish a Brady violation must establish:

(1) the State possessed evidence, including impeachment
evidence, favorable to the defense; (2) the petitioner did not
possess the evidence not could he have obtained it with
reasonable diligence; (3) the prosecution suppressed the
favorable evidence; and (4) had the evidence been disclosed,
a reasonable probability exists that the outcome of the
proceedings would have been different.

State v. Giddings, 2009 MT 61, ¶ 48, 349 Mont. 347, 208 P.3d 363
(internal citations omitted). The United States Supreme Court has
consistently held that the government “violates a defendant’s right to
due process if it withholds evidence that is favorable to the defense and
material to the defendant’s guilt or punishment.” Smith v. Cain, 565
U.S. 73, 75 (2012). “Evidence is ‘material’ within the meaning of Brady
when there is a reasonable probability that, had the evidence been
disclosed, the result of the proceeding would have been different.” Cone
v. Bell, 556 U.S. 449, 469-470 (2009). “A reasonable probability does
not mean the defendant ‘would more likely than not have received a
different verdict with the evidence,’ only that the likelihood of a
different result is great enough to ‘undermine confidence in the
outcome of the trial.’” Smith, 565 U.S. at 75 (citing and quoting Kyles
v. Whitley, 514 U.S. 419, 434 (1995)). “The question is not whether the
defendant would more likely than not have received a different verdict
with the evidence, but whether in its absence he received a fair trial,
understood as a trial resulting in a verdict worthy of confidence.”
Kyles, 514 U.S. at 434. “A defendant need not demonstrate that after
discounting the inculpatory evidence in light of the undisclosed
evidence, there would not have been enough left to convict.” Kyles, 514
U.S. at 434-35.

After trial and sentencing, Windsor discovered that Det. Shermer
had been disciplined by the Missoula Police Department in October
2010 for “violating MPD policies.” (Appendix F). While this alone may
not constitute a Brady violation, it was the nature of Det. Shermer’s
violations that demonstrate a Brady violation occurred in Windsor’s
case. As noted in Appendix F, Det. Shermer had been in search of a
another defendant with an outstanding warrant. Det. Shermer had
reason to believe that defendant was in Billings. “Shermer contacted a
job service agency posing to be the wanted defendant and used the
personal identifiers known to him through [Shermer’s] access to the
[defendant’s] case file. After providing verifying information from the
file, Detective Shermer obtained the user name and password for the
defendant’s job service account and his last know address.”

In her letter to the Missoula Police Department, the Missoula
County Attorney’s Office acknowledges that, as a result of his actions,
Det. Shermer “must be placed on a Giglio/Brady list, which will
negatively impact his ability to perform his duties as a witness in our
cases.” (Appendix F).   (CLICK HERE TO READ LETTER)

Although the county attorney’s letter indicates that it did not
learn of Det. Shermer’s discipline until late June 2016, after Windsor’s
trial and sentencing, the county attorney does address her obligations
under Kyles which, in the words of the county attorney, “imposed upon
the prosecutor an affirmative ‘duty to learn of any favorable evidence
known to the others acting on the government’s behalf, including the
police,’ and a resulting duty to disclose that evidence to the defense.”
(Appendix F) (citing and quoting Kyles, 514 U.S. at 419). The county
attorney acknowledges that her “office will now have to go back and
notify every defendant who has been convicted in a case investigated by
Detective Shermer since October, 2010 of these findings. This will
inevitably lead to post-conviction litigation in many cases.” (Appendix
F) (emphasis added).

Det. Shermer was the lead investigator in Windsor’s case, and the
material included in Appendix F should have been discovered and
disclosed by the state. During trial, the state informed the court that
“Detective Shermer verified that the web site [www.seanboushie.com]
was still active after the order of protection had been issued.” (Tr. 54).
That the site was still active, this formed the basis of one of the
charges against Windsor. Det. Shermer was present during trial and
was introduced to the jury at the beginning of trial. (Tr. 92). Members
of the venire knew Det. Shermer. (Tr. 95). In his cross-examination of
Boushie, Windsor asked Boushie if he had lied to Det. Shermer. (Tr.
216). Finally, Det. Shermer was the only named law enforcement
officer appearing numerous times on the State’s Affidavit and Motion
for Leave to file Information because Det. Shermer took the original
complaint from Boushie. (Doc. 1)

For better or for worse, Windsor maintained in his closing
argument that Montana was “the most corrupt state in the country.”
(Jan. 6, 2016, Vol. I at 33). Prior to trial, he had also made a film
proclaiming this sentiment. As part of his zealous attempt to represent
himself pro se, Windsor had even filed a request to depose Det.
Shermer and subpoena documents from him. (Doc. 70). The district
court denied this request because the state “agreed it would make these
witnesses avail. for interview by Defendant.” (Doc. 70 at 1). It is
unknown whether Windsor ever interviewed Det. Shermer, but given
Windsor’s zeal and attempts to weed out corruption, had he know of the
information contained in Appendix F, he most certainly would have
used it. Windsor did allege that he met with the State’s attorney and
Det. Shermer regarding this case on August 17, 2015. (Doc. 92 at 2).
Windsor also argued that “Chris Shermer never contacted the
Defendant or anyone other than Sean Boushie and the University of
Montana about these charges. None of these people has any knowledge
about what the defendant did ‘knowingly and purposely’ or otherwise,
so they must not be allowed to testify that they do.” (Doc. 96 at 10).
Finally, in pretrial motions, Windsor argued, “William M. Windsor
must be allowed to introduce character evidence regarding Sean
Boushie and Chris Shermer. Both are liars, and evidence must be
presented.” (Doc. 97 at 5). This statement was made in a Response to
the State’s First Motions in Limine.

Windsor’s pretrial pleadings repeatedly accuse Det. Shermer of
threatening Windsor with a federal offense, lying, and mocking him.
The evidence in Appendix F was certainly material to Windsor’s theory
of defense and his case in chief. (Doc. 98 and Ex. A, thereto). That Det.
Shermer did not end up testifying at trial does not make the
Brady/Giglio information contained in Appendix F any less material.
In fact, according to this Court’s decision in State v. Weisbarth, 2016
Mont. 214, 384 Mont. 424, 378 P.3d 1195, the fact that Det. Shermer
did not testify may make the information more material.

In Weisbarth, this court addressed a Brady violation in the form
of medical records for an alleged child victim. After a specific request
for the records, the defense was presented with a heavily redacted
version of the documents. Weisbarth, ¶¶ 1-6. The redacted material
“contained evidence that was clearly favorable to the defense. . . .”
Weisbarth, ¶ 1. One of the reasons that the material was favorable was
because it was plain from the record that it was “relevant to the
defense’s trial strategy.” Weisbarth, ¶ 3. On appeal, the State raised a
number of arguments against Weisbarth’s Brady argument, all of
which were dismissed by this Court.

One of the state’s arguments was that “for the purposes of Brady,
inadmissible evidence cannot be considered favorable evidence because
it cannot be used by the defense at trial.” Weisbarth, ¶ 23. This Court
agreed “with the majority of courts that have addressed the issue. The
focus of the inquiry should not be on whether the evidence is admissible
or inadmissible, but whether the evidence is favorable to the defense
and could have affected the outcome of the proceedings.” Weisbarth, ¶
24. This Court properly noted the need for the material at both a trial
and pre-trial stage. The latter is especially critical because it affects
both defense strategy and investigation.

We decline to develop a rule that would foreclose the
development of defense strategy and investigation or to
presuppose what information the defense may have
developed as a result of properly disclosed evidence. In light
of the policy underlying Brady, we believe that even
inadmissible evidence could have ‘substantial value to the
defense that elementary fairness requires it to be disclosed.’
Weisbarth, ¶ 24 (citing and quoting Agurs, 427 U.S. at 110). The
material contained in Appendix F would have been critical to both
Windsor’s defense strategy and investigation and thus should have
been disclosed to him.

A second argument rebuffed by this Court in Weisbarth was that
Weisbarth could have obtained the exculpatory evidence through the
exercise of reasonable diligence. Weisbarth, ¶ 29. While this Court
acknowledged that its Brady requirement “is now seemingly at odds
with that of the Ninth Circuit,” it declined to address the conflict and
concluded that Weisbarth had exercised diligence in his quest for the
medical records. Weisbarth, ¶ 30 (citing and quoting Amando v.
Gonzalez, 758 F.3d 1119, 1136 (9th Cir. 2014)). “Here, Weisbarth had
no way of knowing what evidence the medical records contained and he
did the only thing he could do to obtain the records by filing a motion
with the District Court requesting their disclosure.” Weisbarth, ¶ 30.
Although he did not have defense counsel for the lion’s share of
his case, Windsor exercised a similar diligence to Weisbarth. Windsor
filed numerous motions for the production of documents, requests for
depositions, interviews, and records. On May 1, 2015, while still in
custody, Windsor filed a “Motion Regarding Discovery.” (Doc. 38). In
this motion Windsor sought “approval of the Court to take depositions
by video and telephone” of the witnesses against him. One of these
witnesses was Det. Shermer. (Doc. 3 at 3). Windsor made a specific
request for the court to issue subpoenas for depositions with document
production to all of the witnesses named in the State’s Information.
(Doc. 70). Among those witnesses was Det. Shermer. In his request,
Windsor attached an exhibit detailing the documents he wanted
produced by Det. Shermer. The documents requested included “All
documents relating or referring to, or evidencing, reflecting or
constituting your job application with the Missoula Police Department.”
(Doc. 70, Request for Deposition of Chris Shermer, Ex. at 4)10.
Notwithstanding the county attorney’s own concession that her office
had an affirmative obligation to obtain Det. Shermer’s disciplinary
record and disclose it, Windsor’s request for deposition and document
production is a reasonable exercise of diligence for one unschooled in
the law and discovery requests. In short: Windsor exercised reasonable
diligence in attempting to obtain the exculpatory and impeachment
material contained in Appendix F.

Windsor’s case establishes not one but all of the necessary
10This document can be found at page 898 of the 2,488 page
combined district court record.
requirements for a Brady violation. As a result, a new trial is the
appropriate remedy. “[O]nce a court finds a Brady violation, a new
trial follows as the prescribed remedy, not as a matter of discretion.”
United States v. Oruche, 484 F.3d 590, 595-96 (D.C. Cir. 2007).
III. District Court Error and the Right to a Fair Trial

Twice during her cross-examination of Windsor, the prosecutor
asked Windsor impermissible questions which violated his right to a
fair trial as they were clearly impermissible and prejudicial. However,
at the time of the questions, Windsor was his own counsel and a
witness; therefore, he was both unable to register an objection to the
questions and unaware that he had to register an objection.
The state’s cross-examination of Windsor featured the following
two exchanges.

State: One of your contentions is that this court is corrupt, correct?

Windsor: Yes.

State: But, in fact, this court actually dismissed three of the charged counts.

Windsor: Yes. Three felonies.

(Jan. 6, 2016, Vol. I. at 22).
. . . .
State: Well, you and I discussed resolution of this case, correct?

Windsor: You offered to settle several times.

State: You did not want to do that, correct?

Windsor: I said that if you wanted to dismiss the charges, I would agree.

State: And I offered to dismiss those charges, correct?

Windsor: With strings attached, yes.

State: Because all I told you I wanted out of this case was for you to leave Mr. Boushie alone.

(Jan. 6, 2016, Vol. I. at 26-27).

Both exchanges violated Windsor’s right to a fair trial and Rule
410 of the Montana Rules of Evidence. Rule 410 reads in relevant part:
Evidence of a plea of guilty, later withdrawn, or a plea of
nolo contendere, or of an offer to plead guilty or nolo
contendere to the crime charged or any other crime, or of
statements made in connection with any of the foregoing
pleas or offers, is not admissible in any civil or criminal
action, case or proceedings against the person who made the
plea or offer.

It is prosecutorial misconduct to tell a jury of offers to plead guilty or
settlement offers. See State v. Sha, 292 Minn. 182, 193 N.W.2d 829
(Minn. 1963) (ordering a new trial when prosecutor elicited testimony
that defendant said he wanted to plead guilty). Here, although
Windsor had not offered to plead guilty, the prosecutor’s questioning
still violated Rule 410 because they revealed “statements made in
connection with any of the foregoing pleas or offers.” Mont. R. Evid.

The prosecutor similarly erred in eliciting testimony from
Windsor that he had been charged with three felonies that the district
court had dismissed. Such testimony invites unwarranted speculation
in the minds of jurors and impermissibly invites speculation on the
defendant’s potential punishment. State v. Zuidema, 157 Mont. 367,
373-74, 485 P.2d 952, 955 (1971). “[P]roviding jurors sentencing
information invites them to ponder matters that are not within their
province, distracts them from their fact finding responsibilities, and
creates a strong possibility of confusion.” State v. E.M.R., 2013 MT 3, ¶
24, 368 Mont. 179, 292 P.3d 451 (citing Shannon v. United States, 512
U.S. 573, 579, 114 S. Ct. 2419, 2424, 129 L. Ed. 2d 459 (1994)).

This Court has held that “one accused of a crime is entitled to
have guilt or innocence determined solely on the basis of the evidence
introduced at trial, not on the grounds of official suspicion, indictment,
continued custody, or other circumstances not adduced as proof at trial.
. . .” State v. Williams, 184 Mont. 111, 113, 601 P.2d 1194, 1196 (1979)
(quoting Taylor v. Kentucky, 436 U.S. 478, 484-85, 98 S. Ct. 1930, 1934-
35, 56 L. Ed. 2d 468 (1978)). Here, the State elicited testimony from
Windsor that the Court had dismissed three felonies. The question was
objectionable, and the answer permitted the jury to speculate on why
the charges where dismissed, the severity of the charges remaining,
and what the previous felonies might have been.

It is also not beyond reason that a juror may have speculated that
Windsor had his previous felony charges dropped on some type of legal
technicality, thus triggering that juror’s desire to balance the scales or
convict Windsor of something. This logic is simply an extension of why
jurors are often precluded from learning of a defendant’s prior
convictions or previous allegations. “Unfair prejudice can arise from
evidence that arouses the jury’s hostility or sympathy for one side
without regard to its probative value.” State v. Bieber, 2007 MT 262, ¶
59, 339 Mont. 309, 170 P.3d 444. Similarly, it is also why courts
disallow evidence that a defendant has been previously acquitted of a
serious crime. See e.g., Blackburn v. Cross, 510 F.2d 1014, 1019 (5th
Cir. 1975) (although evidence of guilt was “quite convincing,” admission
of testimony that the appellant committed a prior crime for which
appellate was acquitted was not harmless error).

The reality is that, other than the jurors, Windsor was the least
legally educated individual at his trial. Had he been represented by
competent counsel, that counsel would have known to object to these
questions and to request a mistrial when the prosecution introduced
evidence that Windsor’s prior felony charges had been dismissed. Even
if the prosecutor wades into these prejudicial waters hoping to take
advantage of Windsor’s legal skill, it was the district court’s obligation
to stop the prosecutor and ensure Windsor received a fair trial. State v.
Griffin, 2016 MT 231, ¶ 9, 385 Mont. 1, 386 P.3d 559 (“A criminal
defendant has a right to a fair trial under both the United States and
Montana Constitutions. The district court’s bears the duty to insure
that the defendant receives a fair trial.”) (internal citations and
quotations omitted).

Given Windsor’s lack of legal training, the prosecutor’s comments,
and the district court’s failure to intervene, Windsor’s right to a fair
trial was violated, and he respectfully requests this Court reverse his
conviction and remand his case for a new trial.


Given the events at trial including problems with jury
instructions and improper questioning, as well as the subsequently
discovered Brady material, it is clear that Windsor’s conviction stands,
at best, on shaky ground. Given the totality of these errors, this Court
can have no confidence in the validity of the jury’s verdict. Therefore,
Windsor respectfully requests that this Court reverse and remand his
case to the appropriate court for a new and fair trial.

Respectfully submitted this 26th day of July, 2017.
/s/ Colin M. Stephens
Colin M. Stephens
Attorney for Windsor "

Dated this 26th day of July, 2017.

/s/ Colin M. Stephens
Colin M. Stephens
Attorney for Appellant

I, Colin M. Stephens, hereby certify that I have served true and accurate copies of the foregoing
Brief - Appellant's Opening to the following on 07-26-2017:

Timothy Charles Fox (Prosecutor)
Montana Attorney General
215 North Sanders
PO Box 201401
Helena MT 59620
Representing: State of Montana

Kirsten H. Pabst (Prosecutor)
200 W. Broadway
Missoula MT 59802
Representing: State of Montana

Chad M. Wright (Attorney)
Representing: William M. Windsor
Service Method: eService
Electronically Signed By: Colin M. Stephens
Dated: 07-26-2017  "

Source and Full Document as Filed

Pabst Letter,

Detective Chris Shermer had been disciplined by the Missoula Police Department [MPD] in October 2010 for violations of MPD policies.

"July 6, 2016
Chief Mike Brady
Missoula City Police Department
RE: Detective Chris Shermer

Dear Chief Brady,

When we met last week, I learned that Detective Shermer had been disciplined by the Missoula
Police Department [MPD] in October 2010 for violations of MPD policies. Specifically, after an
internal investigation conducted by the MPD, Detective Shermer was found in violation of two
Articles of the Canon of Ethics, namely Article 3 and 4, by failing to educate himself of the
relevant criminal statutes and by using illegal means of pursuing a criminal offender. According
to MPD's report, the conduct that led to these :findings was as follows:

Detective Shermer investigated a criminal defendant for internet related child
pornography offenses. The investigation resulted in the issuance of an arrest warrant for
that defendant. That defendant lived in Billings and while Detective Shermer was in
Billings for an unrelated case, he began to search for that defendant to serve the arrest

Detective Shermer posed as that defendant in a telephone call to the Billings Job Service.
After providing verifying information, Detective Shermer obtained the user name and
password for the defendant's job service account and his last known address.

When the address did not verify through the 911 dispatch center, Detective Shermer used
the user name and password to access the defendant's job service account and verify he
wrote it down correctly. Once he confirmed he had written the address correctly he
logged out, realizing the information was of no value. He later arrested the defendant by
other means.

This letter is to notify you that based on the findings in the internal investigation, Detective
Shenner must be placed on a Giglio/Brady list, which will negatively impact his ability to
perform his duties as a witness in our cases. Any conduct or statement that affects an officer's
reputation for honesty and credibility has a direct relation to that officer's ability-or inabilityto
testify at trial.

History of Giglio

In Brady v. Maryland, the U.S. Supreme Court held that "the suppression by the prosecution of
evidence favorable to an accused upon request violates due process where the evidence is
material either to guilt or to punishment, irrespective of the good faith or bad faith of the
prosecution." Brady v. Maryland, 373 U.S. 83 (1963).

In Giglio v. United States, the Supreme Court extended the obligation to share exculpatory
information with the defendant to include information concerning the credibility of government
witnesses. "when the reliability of a given witness may be determinative of guilt or innocence,"
the Court wrote, "nondisclosure of evidence affecting credibility falls within this general rule."
Giglio v. United States, 405 U.S. 150 (1972).

In United States v. Agurs, the Supreme Court expanded the rule further by recognizing a due
process duty to disclose exculpatory information even in the absence of a specific request for it.
United States v. Agurs, 427 U.S. 97 (1976). The duty to disclose includes impeachment
evidence. United States v. Bagley, 473 U.S. 667 (1985).

Finally, the Court's decision in Kyles v. Whitley imposed upon the prosecutor an affirmative
"duty to learn of any favorable evidence known to the others acting on the government's behalf,
including the police," and a resulting duty to disclose that evidence to the defense. Kyles v.
Whitley, 514 U.S. 419 (1995).

A "Giglio-impaired" agent is one against whom there is potential impeachment evidence that
would render the agent's testimony of marginal value in a case, which means that a case that
depends primarily on the testimony of a Giglio-impaired witness is at risk. Cameron v.
Department of Justice, 100 M.S.P.R. 477,482 n. 1 (2005), review dismissed, 165 F. App'x 856
(Fed. Cir. 2006).

Montana Law

Evidence of a witness's untruthfulness is relevant and admissible under the Montana Rules of
Evidence. Mont. R. Evid. 401, 608(b), 61 l(b)(l). Additionally, the State is required to provide
materials which can be used to impeach a witness pursuant to our discovery statute, Mont. Code
Ann. § 46-15-322 (l)(e), in every case where the officer might testify.

Impeachment information may include but is not strictly limited to: (a) specific instances of
conduct of a witness for the purpose of attacking the witness' credibility or character for
truthfulness; (b) evidence in the form of opinion or reputation as to a witness's character for
truthfulness; ( c) prior inconsistent statements; and ( d) information that may be used to suggest
that a witness is biased. It also includes any finding of misconduct that reflects upon the
truthfulness or possible bias of the employee, including a finding oflack of candor during an
administrative inquiry.

Detective Shermer Findings

A review of the internal investigation reveals instances of untruthfulness and deception which
will require disclosure by the prosecution every time he is called as a witness. Additionally, our
office will now have to go back and notify every defendant who has been convicted in a case
investigated by Detective Shermer since October, 2010 of these findings. This will inevitably
lead to post-conviction litigation in many of the cases.

Public Policy

A police officer's job is a position of trust and the public has a right to the highest standard of
behavior from those they invest with the power and authority of a law enforcement officer.
Honesty, credibility and temperament are crucial to the proper performance of an officer's duties.
The importance of police honesty cannot be overstated. Police officers rely on the validity of
information provided to them by fellow officers. Supervisors render decisions based on
information received from officers. Citizens will better communicate and cooperate with law
enforcement officials that they trust.

Prosecutors depend on honest reports, statements, and affidavits when prosecuting criminals. Judges rely on honesty in evaluating warrants. Jurors determine guilt or innocence and often liability based on an officer's investigation and testimony.

As a matter of public policy, dishonesty by law enforcement officers cannot be condoned.

The findings of dishonesty essentially render Detective Shermer ineffective as a witness because
of required Brady disclosures.


Kirsten H. Pabst
Missoula County Attorney

(406) 523-4737
FAX# (406) 523-4915

Notice of potential impeachment material RE: Officer Chris Shermer
To Whom it May Concern,

Detective Shermer was disciplined by the Missoula Police Department [MPD] in October 2010
for violating MPD policies. Specifically, Officer Shermer investigated a criminal defendant for
internet child pornography offenses. The investigation resulted in the issuance of an arrest
warrant for that defendant. Shermer went to Billings to search for the defendant and serve the
arrest warrant. Shermer contacted a job service agency posing to be the wanted defendant and
used the personal identifiers known to him through his access to the case file. After providing
verifying information from the file, Detective Shermer obtained the user name and password for
the defendant's job service account and his last known address. Shermer later arrested the
defendant by other means."

Source and Full Document

Also Check Out



Thursday, August 11, 2016

Sean Boushie, University of Montana, Ravalli County, Missoula County, Detective Chris Shermer, Missoula County Attorneys Office, Missoula Police, Royce Engstrom and MORE. YOU are NEXT. You are Liable for the Harm you do to People. And the Corruption you SUPPRESS. I wish RICO Charges criminal and Civil. I Wish hundreds of Millions to William Windsor personal and his anti-corruption endeavors and I wish you ALL Criminally Indicted and Imprisoned.

Tenth Court of Appeals State of Texas Order moving Forward Bill Windsor of Lawless America Legal Action against alleged Criminal Stalkers and alleged Criminal Defamers. And this is ONLY the Beginning. ALL Corruption will Exposed. All Dark will be EXPOSED in the Light of the Holy Spirit.

"Bill Windsor of Lawless America wins Appeal - Joeyisalittlekid Gang prepares for $100 Million Judgment"

Bill Windsor of Lawless America has won a HUGE pro se Appeal with the Texas Tenth Court of Appeals.  This means the Joeyisalittlekid Gang must now prepare to face the music -- a $100 Million Judgment should be their just reward
Bill Windsor had resigned himself to the fact that he was going to get screwed by just about every judge he ever came in contact with, but then this happened.  It's hard to believe.
It is a fact that judges, law enforcement, and prosecuting attorneys will do whatever they choose to get activists working to expose corruption.  The case of Bill Windsor, an infamous judicial corruption fighter, is one of the most extreme because it involves so much illegal activity against him by so many people.
The Joeyisalittlekid Gang is a gang of people who set out to destroy Bill Windsor so Lawless America...The Movie would never reach theaters.  To do this, they committed the largest case of defamation in U.S. history.
On December 23, 2014, Bill Windsor filed suit pro se against 16 known members of the Joeyisalittlekid Gang and 1,000 "Joey Does," people whose names were not known at the time.  This lawsuit is about much more than clearing his name and potentially getting some money, it should become a landmark case about defamation and cyberstalking.  It should also show other nobodies like Bill that they can succeed in representing themselves in court.
Bill Windsor had no idea that the godfather of the Joeyisalittlekid GangClyde Hargrove of Red Oak Texas, was a big donor and political supporter of the judges, sheriff, and district attorney in Ellis County, Texas.  Bill had no idea that the wife of the judge assigned to his case, Judge Bob Carroll, was one of the Joeys (Kathy Carroll)!  Surprise, surprise, Bill Windsor's case was dismissed. 
From jail, Bill filed four appeals of the wrongdoing in his civil case against the Joeyisalittlekid Gang in November-December 2014 and January-March 2015.  He filed all of the appeals pro se.  The Texas Tenth Court of Appeals just shelved them, ignoring the clear facts and law.  Truth be told, Bill Windsor had given up.  He figured the appellate judges would just ignore everything and someday dismiss the appeals on bogus grounds.
Well, BILL WINDSOR WON HIS APPEAL MOTIONS!  The order came down in all four of his appeals on August 3, 2016.  This means that after 21 months languishing in the Texas Tenth Court of Appeals, the case is moving forward.  The members of the Joeyisalittlekid Gang must now face the very real probability that they will face a jury in Ellis County Texas.  The 16 originally-named defendants plus as many as 100 others who have subsequenty been identified.  Based upon jury awards in defamation cases, Bill Windsor conservatively estimates that a jury should award him at least $100 million.  Most of the Joeys are probably poor, but there are at least a couple of millionaires in the group.  $$$$$
The following is taken from Bill Windsor's Appeal:
Here’s how Bill Windsor believes the corruption against him was orchestrated:
Defendants in his civil case used their political relationships with Ellis County District Attorney Patrick WilsonEllis County Sheriff Johnny Brown; Ellis County Texas Clerk of Court employees; Judge Bob CarrollJudge Richard Davis, and Judge Joe F. Grubbs and their staff members.  
Judge Bob Carroll ignored Bill Windsor’s motions, refused to set hearings on his motions, and repeatedly ruled against him without legal justification
Upon information and belief, attorney Barbara Hachenburg (representing Sean D. Fleming) participated in conceiving a way that the Missoula Police Department and Missoula County Attorney’s Office could charge the Appellant with five crimes.  Bill Windsor had not committed any crimes, but that didn't matter.  (See Case #DC-14-509 in the Fourth Judicial District Court in Missoula Montana, particularly the Motion to Quash Bench Warrant.)
By getting the Missoula County Montana folks (who hate Bill Windsor for exposing the rampant corruption there) to charge him with crimes, the Ellis County Texas folks could coordinate having him arrested when he appeared for a hearing in Case #88611 against the Joeyisalittlekid Gang.  And so they did.  Bill Windsor is not sure who came up with the idea to charge him with three felonies, but he was charged with two misdemeanors and three felonies.  Montana law says there is no way to charge Bill Windsor with a felony, but they did it because this was the only way Montana could have him extradited from Texas.  There is no extradition for misdemeanors.  And, by claiming felonies, it dramatically increased a judge's ability to claim a higher bail amount.  (Bill Windsor successfully argued in Montana to have the delony charges dismissed, and they were.)
Once Bill Windsor was unlawfully incarcerated, attorney Barbara Hachenburg of Houston Texas then communicated with Assistant Ellis County Sheriff Dennis Brearley, and Dennis Brearley unlawfully seized Bill’s laptop and hard drives from his personal property at the Ellis County Jail.  This was held for several days while it was presumably copied for Barbara Hachenburg and the Joeyisalittlekid Gang
Ellis County District Attorney Patrick Wilson then lied repeatedly to Judge Cindy Ermatinger.  He withheld documents.  He got his deputy district attorneys to cover for him.  He told Judge Cindy Ermatinger that Bill Windsor is a terrorist, and he told her that he had committed Internet crimes in Montana!  Corrupt Ellis County District Attorney Patrick Wilson did what he did to block Bill Windsor’s ability to obtain documents that would prove the fraud and to block his ability to be released on bond as Texas law provided.  This was vital to the scheme because the goal in all of this was to keep Bill Windsor in jail without the ability to properly pursue his civil suit against theJoeyisalittlekid Gang -- the largest case of defamation in U.S. history.  Ellis County District Attorney Patrick Wilson succeeded in having Bill Windsor unlawfully held and denied bond for 53 days in the Ellis County Texas Jail.  (See Case #14-158 in the 443rd Judicial District Court in Ellis County Texas and Appeal #10-14-00401-CR in the Tenth Court of Appeals.)
Judge Bob Carroll denied all discovery that Bill Windsor attempted to obtain in Case #88611. Then he granted Defendant Sam Round’s special appearance and dismissed him from the case despite overwhelming proof of the discovery needed to prove that the special appearance had to be denied.  (See Case #10-14-00355-CV in the Tenth Court of Appeals.)
While Bill Windsor was unlawfully incarcerated, Judge Bob Carroll forced him to participate in hearings in the civil case despite almost complete violation of his Constitutional and legal rights due to incarceration and denial of the legal information and tools that he needed.  Bill Windsor literally had to hand-write pleadings, and he was summoned to court from the jail for hearings without notice.  Judge Bob Carroll was set up to issue an order dismissing Bill Windsor’s case against Sean D. Fleming.  Sean D. Fleming is among the most outrageous defamation artist defendants, and no honest judge in his right mind could possibly rule in Sean D. Fleming’s favor.  (See Case #10-14-00392-CV in the Tenth Court of Appeals.)
Bill Windsor succeeded in getting Judge Bob Carroll disqualified as the judge, so the corrupt powers-that-be brought in Judge Richard Davis.  Judge Richard Davis was programmed to award Sean D. Fleming $325,000 in sanctions because Bill sued Sean D. Fleming for making over 100 false and defamatory statements about him, including that he committed tax fraud, is a pedophile, and is a killer.  Judge Richard Davis never read the file, never saw transcripts of the hearings, but he didn't need to; his job was simply to hit Bill Windsor with a massive financial judgment. [Case #10-14-00392-CV in the Tenth Court of Appeals.]
Then Judge Cindy Ermatinger threw Ellis County District Attorney Patrick Wilson a curve when she released Bill Windsor on a $100,000 Personal Recognizance Bond after 53 days in the Ellis County Jail.  Patrick Wilson wasn’t counting on that.  He needed Bill Windsor to be kept in jail and unable to handle his civil case. [Case #10-14-00401-CR in the Tenth Court of Appeals.]
So Ellis County District Attorney Patrick Wilson then concocted a new scheme to get Bill Windsor.  He scheduled a hearing in Judge Cindy Ermatinger’s court and pretended he sent notice to Bill when he absolutely did not.  Ellis County District Attorney Patrick Wilsonn intentionally ignored the legal address, email, and phone that Bill Windsor had filed with Judge Cindy Ermatinger’s court and provided to him because he didn't want Bill to have notice.  He wanted Bill Windsor to fail to appear for the December 30, 2014 hearing so he could have Judge Cindy Ermatinger order that Bill had “jumped bond.”  That way, he could get a $100,000 judgment against Bill Windsor, and he could claim that the Appellant was indicted for felony bond jumping, a charge that has a penalty of up to 10 years in prison.  None of this was valid.  [See Case #14-158 in the 443rd Judicial District Court in Ellis County Texas and Case #10-14-00392-CV in the Tenth Court of Appeals.]
Ellis County District Attorney Patrick Wilson then had his staff fax a Wanted Poster of Bill Windsor to post offices, Federal Express stores, and elsewhere nationwide.  He needed to get Bill Windsor put in jail again so he would lose the ability to handle his civil case and his appeal.  And he succeeded.  Bill Windsor was put in the Ada County Idaho Jail because of one of his FedEx faxes.  Ellis County District Attorney Patrick Wilson then told the Idaho police that Bill Windsor’s bond was $2.1 million and that there was a “Texas transit hold” with no bond.  There is no such thing, but the facts and the law don’t matter with corrupt officials like these.  Ellis County District Attorney Patrick Wilson also had the Idaho police take all of Bill Windsor’s money, credit cards, checks, computer, hard drives, legal files, and the vehicle he had in Idaho.  All of this was unlawfully seized and searched at Ellis County District Attorney Patrick Wilson’s request, and Bill Windsor was left with nothing.  The authorities in Idaho said it was all being held as “evidence for Texas.”  Ellis County District Attorney Patrick Wilson then lied to the Ada County prosecuting attorney, Fafa Aldijani, so she would lie to the judges there and get Bill Windsor hit with another $2 million in bail -- up to $4.1 million.  He told the folks in Idaho and Montana that Bill Windsor was a terrorist. [See Petition for Writ of Habeas Corpus in Case #14-158 in the 443rd Judicial District Court in Ellis County Texas on June 1, 2015 and Case #10-14-00392-CV in the Tenth Court of Appeals.]
While in what amounted to maximum security in Boise Idaho for 35 days, Bill Windsor was unable to deal with his civil case in Texas, so Ellis County District Attorney Patrick Wilson’s buddy, former Ellis County District Attorney Joe Grubbs, was assigned as the judge in Bill Windsor’s civil case, and he dismissed the case for “want of prosecution” because Bill was in jail, and he saddled him with another $25,000 or so in sanctions. [See Petition for Writ of Habeas Corpus in Case #14-158 in the 443rd Judicial District Court in Ellis County Texas on June 1, 2015 and Case #10-14-00392-CV in the Tenth Court of Appeals and Case #10-15-00069-CV in the Tenth Court of Appeals.]
Once Bill Windsor was moved to the Missoula County Detention Center in Missoula Montana on March 25, 2015, the dishonesty continued.  Bill was held for 46 days without bond because Ellis County District Attorney Patrick Wilson told the Montana authorities that there was a “Texas transit hold.”  The Missoula County Attorney's Office went along with it and stalled and stalled while filing false sworn affidavits with the courts. [See Petition for Writ of Habeas Corpus in Case #14-158 in the 443rd Judicial District Court in Ellis County Texas on June 1, 2015.]
So, Bill Windsor has $450,000 allegedly owed in Texas to the crooks that he sued in case #88611.  That civil case #88611 has been dismissed (Case #10-15-00092-CV in the Tenth Court of Appeals), and unless Bill Windsor prevailed on his appeals, the JoeyisalittlekidGang committed the largest case of defamation in U.S. history and got away with it due to corrupt judges and corrupt law enforcement people in Texas, Idaho, and Montana.  Bill Windsor faced seven years in the Montana State Prison though he has never committed a crime.  Montana Judge James A. Haynes was hand-picked to handle Bill’s criminal case because he was the second most corrupt judge that Bill encountered in Montana when filming Lawless America...The Movie in 2013, and he proceeded to rule against Bill on everything. (See Motion to Quash Bench Warrant and file in Case #DC-14-509 in the Fourth Judicial District Court, Missoula Montana.)
Bill Windsor filed four appeals of the wrongdoing in his civil case against the Joeyisalittlekid Gang in November-December 2014 and January-March 2015.  The Texas Tenth Court of Appeals just shelved them, ignoring the clear facts and law.  Truth be told, Bill Windsor had given up.  He figured the appellate judges would just ignore everything and someday dismiss the appeals on bogus grounds.
Well, BILL WINDSOR WON HIS APPEAL MOTIONS!  The Order came down in all four of his appeals on August 3, 2016.  This means that after 21 months languishing in the Texas Tenth Court of Appeals, the case is moving forward.  The members of the Joeyisalittlekid Gang must now face the very real probability that they will face a jury in Ellis County Texas.  The 16 originally-named defendants plus as many as 100 others who have subsequenty been identified.  Based upon jury awards in defamation cases, Bill Windsor conservatively estimates that a jury should award him at least $100 million.  Most of the Joeys are probably poor, but there are at least a couple of millionaires in the group.  $$$$$
The Order of August 3, 2016 is a little strange.  They covered up the FACT that the Texas Rules of Appellate Procedure provide that an appellant may cite to an appendix.  They covered it up to save face.  It seems the Court of Appeals didn't want to come right out and say why they ruled in Bill Windsor's favor and refused to dismiss his appeals.  You will see that they cite three cases but don't explain why.  Bill Windsor had cited Sieverding v. Colorado Bar Association and Baum v. Blue Moon Ventures in his Brief as federal decisions stating that a federal court has no jurisdiction over state court matters.  That was the basis upon which the bad guys were claiming his appeal had to be denied.  They said Bill Windsor had to obtain leave from a federal judge before he could file an appeal in a state court.  Ludicrous.  So, they ruled for Bill Windsor, but didn't even explain what the issue was.  Note at the very end "Do not publish."  Appellate court judges do this when they don't want others to see what they've done.  These four appeals of Bill Windsor's now provide a statement of the law in Texas that no one may be restricted from filing an appeal of a State of Texas case through any action or inaction by a federal court.  If you want even more ammo should you be in the same situation, Bill Windsor has precedents in Montana, Idaho, Missouri, Georgia, and South Dakota.  Just email Bill@BillWindsor.com and request the case citations.
Pro se parties who know what they are doing should win most of the time in court, but they rarely do because judges do whatever they want.  And they rarely want a pro se party to get anywhere.  Bill Windsor was vicious in his brief with these appellate court judges, which makes it even more surprising that they ruled in his favor. 
Among a detailed identification of all the false statements in the court's orders, Bill wrote this:
"There are SIGNIFICANT fundamental fairness Constitutional violations in the instant matter. Nothing is fundamentally fair about this Court issuing orders that are absolutely false or incorrect based upon the Record. Nothing is fundamentally fair with being threatened with dismissal of this Appeal. Nothing is fundamentally fair about being unlawfully incarcerated for 134 days, something that this Court could have stopped. Nothing is fundamentally fair about this Court ignoring and thumbing its nose at the realities of deprivation of legal and Constitutional rights while incarcerated. Nothing is fundamentally fair about sua sponte staying this Appeal one day before the Appellee’s Brief was due, 11 months after the Appeal was filed. Nothing is fundamentally fair about the bias demonstrated by the justices of this Court. Nothing is fundamentally fair about dismissing this Appeal over imaginary deficiencies without an opportunity to cure."
Bill Windsor does not recommend his blunt approach to others.  It will usually get you screwed.  But Bill Windsor decided long ago that he will always call a Spade a Spade.  If he's going to get screwed, glued, and tattooed by courts, he plans to go down swinging and expose as much corruption as he can in the process.
When time permits, Bill Windsor will post the various filings in the appeal cases including Word files for those pro se parties who may be able to use some of the arguments or case law.  Bill Windsor is not an attorney, and he does not give legal advice.  But he will share his experience with his friends. Bill thinks he is better than any attorney and infinitely more affordable. :-)
In other legal news for Bill Windsor, the Montana Supreme Court has violated Bill yet again.  If there is a more blatantly corrupt group of judges in America, Bill Windsor would like to see them.  Another major court has ruled favorably for Bill in an initial filing.  The criminal courts in Ellis County and the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals have been abusing Bill Windsor up one side and down the other.  Bill will have to appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court as Ellis County's corrupt Mafia will do anything to put Bill Windsor in prison for 10 years in hopes he will die there.  Bill has complaints pending against Ellis County District Attorney Patrick Wilson and Assistant Ellis County District Attorney Ann Montgomery-Moran with the Texas Bar Association.  He also has a judicial misconduct complaint pending against Judge Cindy Ermatinger.  Bill Windsor has been busy helping others, but he needs to turn attention back to the civil rights lawsuits that he will be filing against all the corrupt government officials involved in raping him of his Constitutional rights in Texas, Idaho, and Montana.

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